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Raw materials

Raw materials

Common minerals used in the production of ceramic tiles include silica, kaolin, talc, potash feldspar and soda feldspar. Varying quantities of these materials can be used to give a tile different characteristics.

Milling

Milling

Each raw material is ground to a specific particle size. Milling is important in maintaining consistency throughout the manufacturing process.

Mixing

Mixing

The material particles are mixed with water to form a liquid slurry which evenly distributes the minerals.

Atomisation

Atomisation

The liquid slurry undergoes a complex drying process. It is heated, cooled, sprayed at high pressure and cyclonically separated until a fine, dry powder is formed.

Pressing

This dry powder is then poured into a mould upon which a hydraulic press exerts 40 tonnes of pressure. This presses the powder particles tightly together, resulting in a tile 'biscuit' or 'bisque'.

Priming

Priming

The surface of the bisque must be primed prior to decoration to ensure uniformity and to prevent absorption of the glaze into the biscuit. This primer is referred to as an engobe or slip.

Drying

Drying

The bisque is stored in a drying rack until it is completely dry. Excess moisture can result in the tile exploding in the kiln as water molecules within the bisque rapidly expand under extreme heat.

Decorating

Decorating

Most tiles are decorated with a glaze applied to the surface of the biscuit. Advanced technologies now enable the glaze to be rapidly applied by an industrial inkjet printer to 600 dpi.

Firing

Firing

The firing process subjects the tile to extreme temperatures (over 1200 degrees) which causes the particles within the tile to fuse together. Tiles may have different characteristics depending on what temperature they were fired at and for how long.

Quality Control

Quality Control

After the tile has cooled it undergoes a strict quality control process. Both computerised and human QC checks occur to ensure only perfect products are supplied.

Any imperfections see the tile broken down and reintroduced to production as base raw material.

Packaging

Packaging

The end product is carefully packaged to be transported anywhere in the world for your next project.